Flag of the American Commonwealth Republics Flag of Free China


Why should America give China most-favored-nation (mfn) trade status and proclaim a one-China policy when China's government intimidates its neighbors, militarizes far offshore islands and makes exclusive claim to open territorial waters about the South Asia Sea? They are becoming even more authoritarian through eliminating various anti-dictator, post-Mao reforms and inducting Xi basically as a preliminary emperor for life. The Chinese leadership has used their trade with America to increase their military strength while stealing American military technology and trade secrets via hacking. They have kept North Korea functioning for decades allowing them to build as a proxy threat to the U.S. The various peoples and territories under China's control have to be kept in line under duress while their government is simultaneously propogandizing against outside nations -- painting them as the more potential threat to the people's interests.

No one should begrudge the average Chinese citizen for wanting to be soverign and secure within their mainland borders after suffering the colonial powers' invasions and occupations of the past. Nor should they be denied access to the open seas nor to free trade for the world's resources. However, it is their communist government and system that keeps the people down through corruption, warped and inefficient allocations of capital, subjecting citizens to false arrest and imprisonment for merely voicing their opinions or dissent over human rights abuses by the state. There is no honor in helping to prop up this state any more than there is to provide appeasement cash to states like North Korea or Iran, to giving full acceptance of the regime in Cuba, to having normal relations with Venezuela, in tolerating the cloak-and-dagger antics of Russia or to ever recognize any possible further attempt by Mugabe of Zimbabwe in reclaiming power.

With all this in mind and on behalf of the common Chinese citizens who are not of the one-party elites nor advocates of the war-mongering generals' rhetoric, we have decided to announce a 'New Nations of China' proposal where China becomes a more geographical concept analogous to Europe. This new China contains a new set of sovereign and independent States implementing truly representative governments, limited powers, free markets and federalist power structures in relation to their respective provinces plus the rights to clean air and clean water. The new countries will be better positioned to establish governments with consent of their respective peoples through multi-party elections, more adequate numbers of representatives to constituents and borders delineating population densities containing particular regional, ethnic, linguistic & cultural cores having considered their balances and pluralities.

For those Chinese who say this is an effort to divide and conquer China, we remind them of the current initiatives in California to break it into separate states in order for it to be better governed as well as the recent Brexit where the U.K. sought to better manage its affairs and attain economic benefits outside of the E.U. bureaucracy. Also the purveyor of this 'New Nations of China' proposal likewise suggests that states in the U.S. secede if the federal government of America remains outside its constitutional parameters and the corruption within is not purged. Additionally we point out here that the U.S. ratio of congressional seats to the population is even worse than that of China's counterpart assembly and we ask for improvement in both cases. All of these examples illustrate that the initiatives in the 'New Nations of China' would bring big improvements to the Sino peoples.

In the future if there is sufficient desire and agreement towards a One Free Unified China, then they can consolidate again but in better fashion under a new federalist system with civic rights and individual liberties having been built from the bottom up by the New Nations as opposed to the current PRC which is instituted from the top down. Accordingly this 'New Nations of China' proposal can be embraced as either a permanent solution or as an alternative stepping stone towards some final One Free Unified China (notice flag at top right of page). We support either of these situations instead of the current PRC which like all socialist states before it either exhibits constant meddle of a lower standard of living or tumults to failure. The peasants, workers or those of any class through this proposal will elevate from being under the foot of the party elites and of those favored by the same.

Without further adieu, we now display a map of the proposed 'New Nations of China' drawn by basing the new countries on current province borders. There may be some tweaking in practice. For example, some provinces may wish to have previous land areas eventually returned like in the case of Tibet.


'New Nations of China' Map with color key

Peppered provinces might retain their autonomous region status within their new country. Those provinces may or may not still be differentiated under the New Nations of China as all provinces will gain more sovereignty within a federalist model in relation to their new country memberships.

~anchor for links link~


Intro to China

Maps of China

North & South China

Mandarin & Cantonese

Ethnic Groups of China



Inner Mongolia





Hong Kong

One-China Duress

Forms of Nationalism in China

Aggressions in South Asia Sea

You can also find out more about the results of China's centrally-planned economic system (shadow banking, empty cities, capital misallocations) plus their cyber-espionage activity from the Vietnam Policy page.

A quick introduction and historical overview of China.

From second map down on page:

'China has 34 provincial-level administrative units: 23 provinces, 4 municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing), 5 autonomous regions (Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang) and 2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong, Macau).'

Colored map indicating provinces, the autonomous regions, the designated city-state municipalities and special administrative regions (Hong Kong, Macau) in China.

Ethnolinguistic map of China.

'Which parts of China speak Mandarin and which parts speak Cantonese?'

'Cantonese (or Yue) is confined mostly to the very far south of China, in Guangdong province and a not a small part of Guangxi.' ~ Kaiser Kuo | Updated Jul 7, 2014

'China's cooking styles and dietary preferences can be divided into many geographical areas, and each area has a distinct style of cooking.' ~ Author: Annie Wu | Update: February 19, 2017

'The 8 Great Regional Cuisines of China' Author: Gavin Van Hinsbergh | Update: July 14, 2016

Behold this population density map of China.

You can scroll through the various historical empires of China with a description of each period and coverage map.

2018 Map of China's provinces.

'This map shows all the provinces that make up China together with the names of the surrounding countries and the two main rivers of China (the Yellow and the Yangzi). Hover the mouse over the map to show the province name and then click on it to show more information about it.'

Air pollution map of China:

A site with various maps of China:

'South China or Southern China (simplified Chinese: 华南; traditional Chinese: 華南; pinyin: huá nán) is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context.'

'In normal parlance and geography, it refers to the region south of the Qinling Huaihe Line.'

'In general, the north is colder and the south is warmer. The dividing line between the two is usually considered the Huai River and the Qin Mountains, or, alternatively, the Yangzi River, which runs a little further to the south. The western regions, Qinghai, Tibet, and Xinjiang are not considered a part of either north or south.'

'There’s so much to like about food in China, regardless of whether you head north or south. Due to the region’s geography, the north has historically been home to wheat-based dishes that fill you against the winter cold. Most dishes are salty and packed with calories.'

'In China’s south, you’ll find rice dishes instead of wheat dishes. Southern cuisine uses more spice than in the north, as the spices traditionally preserve the food against the humidity. Flavours are generally more delicate, while portions are smaller but with more dishes served at each meal.' ~ Aren Bergstrom | Submitted on Friday, December 15, 2017

'Interestingly, most...southern groups traditionally regarded themselves not as Han but as Tang, descendants of the great Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) and its southern bases. Most Chinatowns in North America, Europe and Southeast Asia are inhabited by descendants of Chinese immigrants from the mainly Tang areas of southern China. The next decade may see the resurgence of Tang nationalism in southern China in opposition to northern Han nationalism, especially as economic wealth in the south eclipses that of the north.' ~ Jeffrey Hays | Last updated June 2015

'Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages and is their language. The language is divided into seven dialects namely Mandarin, Wu Dialect, Xiang Dialect, Gan Dialect, Min Dialect, Cantonese and Hakka. In different regions, the standard of Chinese varies. The Mandarin is the standard designated language on the Chinese mainland and Taiwan; while Cantonese is the prime dialect of Hong Kong.'

'Mandarin ..... is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion).'

'Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast. This is generally attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the relatively recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas.'

'Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese.'

'In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia, as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world.'

'While the term Cantonese refers narrowly to the prestige variety, it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese.....Cantonese is viewed as a vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau.'

'The Chinese linguist Y. R. Chao has shown that the mutual unintelligibility of, say, Cantonese and Mandarin is as great as that of Dutch and English or French and Italian. Mandarin was imposed as the national language early in the 20th century and has become the lingua franca, but, like Swahili in Africa, it must often be learned in school and is rarely used in everyday life across much of China.' ~ Jeffrey Hays | Last updated June 2015

'Chinese Ethnic Groups : China Ethnic Groups Distribution Map'

'As a large united multi-national state, China is composed of 56 ethnic groups. Among them Han Chinese account for 91.59% of the overall Chinese population and the other 55 make up the remaining 8.41% according to the Fifth National Population Census of 2000. As the combined population of these other minorities is far fewer than that of the Han, they form the 55 minorities of China.'

'This map of ethnic groups in China provides us the basic information of Chinese ethnic groups. More importantly, it allows us to see how maps created by different people can be different. A person who is familiar with the map’s background can make the map contain more values, but it can also exaggerate the author’s point of view. A map created by foreigners might be a lack of information, but it can be simple and clear. Both of these maps have advantages and disadvantages. Neither of them can be objective and accurate. All maps reveal and conceal important contents to show the authors’ point of view intentionally or unintentionally. As a result, it is better for readers to see maps from different perspectives to gain a relatively objective view.' ~ The Map of China’s Ethnic Groups Posted on March 3, 2017 by Violet Zeng

'Autonomous administrative divisions of China are specific areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities that are designated as autonomous within the People's Republic of China (PRC). These areas are recognized in the Constitution of China and are nominally given a number of rights not accorded to other administrative divisions. For example, Tibetan minorities in Autonomous regions are granted rights and support not given to the Han Chinese, such as fiscal and medical subsidies.'

'While ethnic diversity does not necessitate ethnic separatism or violence, growing ethnic awareness and expression in China should inform policy that takes into account the interests of China's many peoples, not just those in power. China policy should represent more than the interests of those in Beijing.'

' Sun Yat-Sen, leader of the republican movement that toppled the last imperial dynasty of China (the Qing) in 1911, popularized the idea that there were "Five Peoples of China"--the majority Han being one and the others being the Manchus, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Hui (a term that included all Muslims in China, now divided into Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Hui, etc.)'

'Communists even offered the possibility of true independence for minorities. Chairman Mao frequently referred to Article 14 of the 1931 Chinese Communist Party (CCP) constitution, which "recognizes the right of self- determination" of the national minorities in China, their right to complete separation from China, and to the formation of an independent state for each minority. This commitment was not kept after the founding of the People's Republic (Gladney 1996: 60-75). Instead, the party stressed maintaining the unity of the new nation at all costs.' ~ Dru C. Gladney


'The history of the Han Chinese ethnic group is closely tied to that of China. Han Chinese trace their ancestry back to the Huaxia ( 華夏), people who lived along the Yellow River in northern China. The name “Han” comes from Han Dynasty (漢朝, which ruled over a unified China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.. Over the centuries the Han have absorbed many ethnic groups, taking on aspects of their culture and language. The Han speak a variety of dialects and even distinct languages, which are sometimes mutually incomprehensible, but share a common writing system based on Mandarin.'

'Upon its founding, the Republic of China recognized five major ethnic groups: the Han, Hui, Mongols, Manchus, and Tibetans, while the People's Republic of China now recognizes fifty-six ethnic groups.'

'The reign of the Han Dynasty, which lasted for 400 years, is commonly considered within China to be one of the greatest periods in the entire history of China. As a result, the members of the ethnic majority of Chinese people to this day still call themselves "People of Han," in honor of the Liu family and the dynasty they created.'

'The foundations of the Civil Service as a meritocracy were established. The Han gave the Chinese a sense of unity and bequeathed an efficient administrative system. Their philosophy stressed charity and responsible governance. Generally, the Han ruled justly and did not misuse their power.'

'Hanyu was the original language of the Han, and a tongue which later developed into an early version of Mandarin Chinese. Then, a written vernacular Chinese was increasingly used as a link among and between the many local languages used that time.'

'The early Han people introduced many discoveries to the outside world that came into contact with them. These included fireworks, rockets, gunpowder, the crossbow, cannons, and matches. Paper, printing, paper money, porcelain, silk, lacquer, compass, and earthquake detectors were also developed in China long ago. The Ming Dynasty, also ruled by Han people, contributed to the building of the Great Wall' ~ By Rolando Y. Wee | last updated on April 25, 2017

'The Han Chinese hail from China's Northeast Plain and the Yangtze and Yellow river valleys. Today they are scattered all over the country and many non-Han Chinese feel that their homelands are being overrun by them.'

'Cultural diversity within the Han has not been officially recognized because of a deep (and well-founded) fear of the country breaking up into feuding kingdoms, as happened in the 1910s and 1920s. China has historically been divided along north-south lines, into Five Kingdoms, Warring States or local satrapies, as often as it has been united.' ~ Jeffrey Hays | Last updated June 2015

'Manchuria, also called the Northeast, Chinese (Pinyin) Dongbei or (Wade-Giles romanization) Tung-pei, formerly Guandong or Guanwei, historical region of northeastern China. Strictly speaking, it consists of the modern provinces (sheng) of Liaoning (south), Jilin (central), and Heilongjiang (north).'

'The Manchus, one of modern China’s dozens of ethnic groups, have their origins in the nomadic tribes of the vast, forested hills and plains beyond the Great Wall. Located in what today are China’s industrial northeastern provinces, their homeland—Manchuria—is the site of cultural exchange, imperial growth, and evolving identities.'

'Descended from the Jurchen people, a nomadic folk whose society was organized into tribal clans, the Manchus lived on the periphery of Chinese civilization.'

'Han Chinese moved beyond the Great Wall and to what they now called “dongshansheng,” or the “Three Northeastern Provinces” constituting the old Manchu homeland.'

'Then came the communist and culture revolution, anyting that's related to formal emperor's were condemned and destroyed. Manchu, being the former imperial clan, was one of the target. This has made most of Manchu changed their ethnicity from Manchu into Han on their identity card. It is only after the economic reforms after the 1980s that Manchu began to freely express their culture identity.' ` Li Liu | Answered Feb 21, 2015

'Between the 1970s and 1990s, many Hans changed “Han” into "Manchus" in Liaoning province because of China’s preferential policies towards ethnic minorities.' ~ Lizhi YE | Answered Mar 26, 2018

'It is the third largest Chinese province (over 1.1 million square kilometers or 424,736 square miles) but not very populated. The province has about 24 million inhabitants. Many ethnic groups are living in this area including Mongolian, Daur, Oroqen, Ewenki, Hui, Han, Korea and Manchu. Hohhot is the capital of Inner Mongolia.'

'Inner Mongolia is the first region in China to achieve the status of an Autonomous Ethnic Region.'

'Mongol People were a nomadic tribe in ancient China. They hunted and grazed on the vast Mongolian grasslands. Before the 12th Century, people in this region were under the cruel reign of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), and they were devastated by the frequent warfare between different tribes, so they hungered for a unified and peaceful life. Genghis Khan is the one who ended their suffering and built a united country, and an empire including much of China.' ~ Author: Ruru Zhou | Update: June 9, 2017

'As you might have observed, the name Inner Mongolia was derived from how Manchus called southern part of Mongolia, so was the name Outer Mongolia. Mongolia was not the only nation occupied by the Qing Dynasty, but also Tibet, Nepal and Uighur.'

'Naturally, Chinese 1911 revolutionary leaders insisted they would retain all the territory, including Outer Mongolia, occupied under the Qing Dynasty. Hence, they did not accept the independence of Outer Mongolia in 1911.'

'Multiple reasons could have prompted Stalin to advocate for Mongolia’s independence at the time.....So, in brief, a series of internal and external rise and fall in Mongolia caused its southern part (a.k.a Inner Mongolia) to be remained as a part of China.'

'Obviously, due to its integration to China, Inner Mongolia has turned into a fusion of the two cultures while Mongolia has been experiencing its ups and downs on its own terms.' ~ Author: Enkhzul | December 31, 2016

'Government policies suppressed Mongol identity. Han migration started in the 19th century. The native population was already in the minority by 1949; now only 20% of people in the province are Mongolian. The region suffered especially severe violence in the Cultural Revolution—up to 100,000 people died, by some reckonings. Buddhism, which was strongly rooted in Inner Mongolia, was crushed, and most temples destroyed.'

'The question is whether the model of assimilation and appeasement is sustainable. Economic pressures are growing. Many Mongolians feel excluded from the province’s overall prosperity. City folk, who are disproportionately Han, earn twice as much as herders. Even in rural areas, the energy-intensive and heavily polluting industries that fuelled the region’s boom largely benefit Han companies; few miners are Mongolian.'

'Beyond government-sponsored festivities, however, there are signs of a quiet resurgence of Mongolian identity. A 20-something in West Ujimqin whose upbringing was so Chinese that he goes by his Chinese name recently started a line of clothing adorned with local Mongolian monuments and Mongolian script that he himself cannot read. Social media have helped Mongolians from different parts of the province get in touch; Mongolian-language apps, some aimed at adults wishing to learn, are helping revive the language.' ~ Jun 1st 2017 | HOHHOT AND WEST UJIMQIN

'In 1969 the Beijing government reversed its previous policy by sharply cutting down the area of the autonomous region, transferring territory to the surrounding provinces and regions in all directions (especially to the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia in the west and Heilongjiang in the east). Only the international frontier with Mongolia remained unchanged. The areas transferred constituted about two-thirds of the former area of the region and contained almost half of its former population. In 1979 this reorganization was terminated, and the territory detached in 1969 was restored to Inner Mongolia.'

'The continuous territorial changes that have affected it have therefore signified the contradiction of diverse cultures and conflicting loyalties. Inner Mongolia has thus served as a testing ground for Chinese efforts to integrate Han and Mongols into a single unified political entity.' ~ Victor C. Falkenheim , Chu-yuan Cheng

'The largest ethnic group, the Muslim, Turkic-speaking Uighurs, has lived in China's shadow for centuries. The region has had an intermittent history of autonomy and occasional independence, but was finally brought under Chinese control in the 18th century.'

'The main Uighur groups abroad are the separatist East Turkestan Liberation Movement, founded in Turkey in the late 1990s, and the World Uighur Congress, which was set up in Germany in 2004.'

'Beijing has sought to deal with the unrest with a mix of repression and efforts to stimulate the region's economy, including through increased investment by state-owned firms.' ~ 17 November 2016

'Today, Xinjiang has both a massive security presence and ubiquitous surveillance technology: facial-recognition cameras; iris and body scanners at checkpoints, gas stations and government facilities; the collection of DNA samples for a massive database; mandatory apps that monitor messages and data flow on Uyghurs' smartphones; drones to monitor the borders.'

'More and more Uyghurs, perhaps as many as 120,000, are being rounded up and sent to reeducation camps for minor offenses. Increasingly, any outward expression of religion or cultural expression is being seen as subversive, with even elderly intellectuals facing arrests, like the 82-year-old Islamic scholar Muhammad Salih Hajim, who died earlier this year in a reeducation camp.' ~ Nithin Coca | 02.22.18

'This expanded system of surveillance has also been backed not only with force, displayed most overtly through such measures as mass “anti-terrorism” rallies of thousands of security personnel in Xinjiang’s major cities, but also, most disturbingly, by mass social coercion not seen since the height of the Cultural Revolution.'

“Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). Xi has declared that “long term stability” in Xinjiang – a hub for three of the six proposed “economic corridors” linking China to South Asia, the Middle East and Europe under BRI – is vital to the initiative’s success....This has resulted in the intensification of long-standing strategies of control augmented by a variety of innovations and a rapid increase in expenditure on domestic security.' ~ By Michael Clarke | March 10, 2018

Various articles about the conflict with Beijing in Xinjiang.

'Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) occupies one eighth of the China’s territory. Due to its high altitude, it is often called the 'Roof of the World' and the 'Third Pole of the Earth'. It boasts the world's highest peak, the splendid Mt. Everest, and the Tibetan Plateau, where the Yangtze River and Yellow River both begin.'

'Most young and middle-aged people have command of two languages, their own language and Mandarin. The people living in this vast land are mainly Tibetan, an ethnic group with bold and uninhibited characteristics. Most live a pastoral lifestyle, earning a living by raising yaks, farming, as well as by making crafts.'

'Most of local inhabitants practice Tibetan Buddhism and Bon.'

'Tibet has had a tumultuous history, during which it has spent some periods functioning as an independent entity and others ruled by powerful Chinese and Mongolian dynasties.' ~ 16 August 2017

'In 1950, the newly established Communist regime in China invaded Tibet, which was rich in natural resources and had a strategically important border with India. Tibet today is under China’s occupation.'

'The Chinese government justifies its occupation by claiming that Tibet has been part of China for around 800 years. Its claim is not supported by the facts.'

Free Tibet is a site on the historical independence of Tibet and opposition to China's current occupation of the former separate state. Donations are accepted.

Recent headlines concerning Tibet in relation to China:

'Simply put, the PRC claims Taiwan to be part of the PRC as it is the successor state to the ROC (which it views as losing the civil war), and the ROC views the PRC as an illegal state occupying China.'

'By many standards, Taiwan is more advanced due to its free-market economy and high-performing industries, and the people are famous for being polite and well-mannered with an overall higher education quality and English proficiency, especially around Taipei and with younger Taiwanese.... As one of the "four Asian tigers", Taiwan's economic growth propelled the island forward toward its democratic dawn in the late 1980s, and today is a multi-party, full democracy.'

'China cracks down on foreign companies calling Taiwan, other regions countries.'

'Taiwan is China’s most sensitive territorial issue. The ruling Communist Party considers the self-ruled, democratic island a wayward province and refuses to renounce the threat of force to bring it into the fold.' ~ JANUARY 12, 2018 / 3:20 AM | Brenda Goh, John Ruwitch

'How China and Taiwan split: A look back, as leaders meet'

'Though it has ruled itself for six decades, Taiwan has never declared formal independence; leaders in Beijing continue to regard the island as an inherent part of Chinese territory that must someday be reunited with the mainland.' ~ By TIMES STAFF | NOV. 6, 2015 | 5:48 P.M.

'In Taipei, the cabinet’s Mainland Affairs Council said it was “absolutely” the right of Taiwan’s 23 million people to decide their future.'

“The Republic of China is a sovereign country,” the council said, using Taiwan’s formal name.' ~ OCTOBER 18, 2017 / 3:32 AM / Benjamin Kang Lim, Jess Macy Yu

'Some Taiwanese worry their economy is now dependent on China. Others point out that closer business ties makes Chinese military action less likely, because of the cost to China's own economy.'

'A controversial trade agreement sparked the "Sunflower Movement" in 2014 where students and activists occupied Taiwan's parliament protesting against what they call China's growing influence over Taiwan.'

'President Jimmy Carter ended US diplomatic recognition of Taiwan in order to concentrate on burgeoning ties with China.'

'The US Congress, responding to the move, passed the Taiwan Relations Act, which promises to supply Taiwan with defensive weapons, and stressed that any attack by China would be considered of "grave concern" to the US.' ~ 3 December 2016

'In the hope of an eventual reunification of Taiwan and mainland China under ROC rule, the KMT and minor like-minded parties — the “Blues” — generally support a conciliatory approach to relations with Beijing. The DPP and other “Greens,” who believe that Taiwan is de facto independent and hope to make it someday officially so, are more antagonistic.'

'The DPP’s victory is not a fluke. Demographically, the number of people with close ties to the mainland — that is, natural KMT voters — is decreasing; a distinct Taiwanese identity is taking hold, especially among young Taiwanese; and Taiwan’s economic and political self-sufficiency is impossible to deny.'

'1,500 short-range ballistic missiles Beijing has pointed at Taiwan are not an empty threat, and more than a few experts have suggested that, given China’s economic troubles, party leaders might not object to a bit of foreign adventurism as a diversion.' ~ JUNE 27, 2016 | By IAN TUTTLE | June 27, 2016 5:00 AM

'Macau, also spelled Macao, is a tiny Chinese territory that is about 30 square kilometers in size. It is a fusion of East and West in lifestyles, architecture, and food. Known for its huge casinos and being the world's top gambling city, it boasts some popular attractions for tourists to visit.'

'Macau is a place where you can feel the rich Portuguese heritage fused with Chinese culture in street signs, architecture, food, and more.'

'Apart from in foreign affairs, Macau mostly operates as an independent city-state.'

'The city was handed back to China in 1999 under the same ‘one country, two systems’ policy that saw Hong Kong gifted back to China in 1997. Under the agreement signed by Portugal and China, Macau is guaranteed its own monetary system, immigration controls, and legal system. The agreement also stipulates that China will not interfere in Macau’s way of life until 2049, which effectively means China won’t try and enforce communism instead of capitalism. ' ~ BY RORY BOLAND | Updated 12/12/17

'Hong Kong.....officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Along with Macau, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and several other major cities in Guangdong, the territory forms a core part of the Pearl River Delta metropolitan region, the most populated area in the world. With over 7.4 million Hongkongers of various nationalities in a territory of 1,104 square kilometres (426 sq mi), Hong Kong is the fourth-most densely populated region in the world.'

Profile and timeline of Honk Kong:

'Hong Kong is governed under the principle of "one country, two systems", under which China has agreed to give the region a high degree of autonomy and to preserve its economic and social systems for 50 years' ~ 9 January 2018

'However, unofficially Hong Kong is by most practical measures its own country. While most Hong Kongers consider themselves Chinese, they do not consider themselves a part of China. They even have their own Olympic team, anthem, and flag.​'

'Post-handover, the colony of Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) and for official purposes is a part of China. But, for all intents and purposes, it is allowed to operate as an independent country. ' ~ BY RORY BOLAND | Updated 12/12/17

'Under Xi, the Communist Party is pushing for a return to “the core values of socialism,” and a rooting out of such “false ideological trends” as constitutional democracy, civil society, unregulated markets, a free press, critical historiography, and political dissent.' ~ Published on: November 6, 2017 | Martha Bayles

'Xi has overseen a sweeping crackdown on rights lawyers and activists since coming to power in 2012, jailing dozens, in what rights groups say is a coordinated attempt to quash dissent in China.'

'New internet measures include rules that hold users accountable for critical posts even in private group chats and a renewed crackdown on technologies to circumvent restrictions.' ~ Reporting by Christian Shepherd in BEIJING and Venus Wu in HONG KONG; Editing by Tony Munroe and Martin Howell | OCTOBER 21, 2017 / 11:33 PM

'Both China’s foreign trade and its gross national product (GNP) have experienced sustained and rapid growth, especially since foreign-owned firms began using China as an export platform for goods manufactured there.'

'The Chinese economy thus has been in a state of transition since the late 1970s as the country has moved away from a Soviet-type economic system............. Available energy has not been sufficient to run all of the country’s installed industrial capacity, the transport system has remained inadequate to move sufficient quantities of such critical commodities as coal, and the communications system has not been able to meet the needs of a centrally planned economy of China’s size and complexity.'

'China’s Muslim Uighurs from Xinjiang, and Buddhist Tibetans, are resisting assimilation despite sustained efforts by ethnic Han Chinese. Both groups harbor strong resentments against Han-ification that sometimes erupt into violence — direct action that’s quickly suppressed by security officials.' ~ BY JEFF KINGSTON

'But Beijing’s tightening grip comes at a cost. In Hong Kong, Liu’s death has rekindled an anti-mainland sentiment that has been smouldering for years. To the seven million citizens who watched Liu’s slow death in equal parts horror and grief, any remaining pretence that modern China is a benevolent paternal state that has moved beyond a brutal response to political debate has been shattered once and for all.'

'A legislature that acts with complete impunity will further embitter the population and destabilize Hong Kong. By pushing the opposition out of the legislature and back onto the streets, Beijing may have inadvertently set in motion a new era of resistance.' ~ Jason Y Ng |Mon 17 Jul 2017 00.56 EDT

'The historical mindset that links neiluan (domestic disturbance) with waihuan (external threat or foreign aggression) contributes to the politicization and securitization of the Xinjiang and Tibetan issues, creating an impasse between the Chinese central government and ethnic minority groups over the future of these regions.'

'Yang Shengmin, the dean of the School of Ethnology and Sociology in Minzu University, writes in the China’s Ethnic Groups Magazine that “attributing all riots in Xinjiang to the influence of Western forces is misinformed; the root of separatism in Xinjiang lies in the adoption of a misguided development model in Xinjiang.” The investment from inland cities to boost local development in Xinjiang was heavy on resource exploitation, Yang explained, and thus completely destroyed the agricultural economy that a majority of the Uyghur population relies on:'

'Protests in Tibet and Xinjiang are usually inspired by land grabs, environmental damage, and deprivation of religious beliefs, which are by-products of the CPC’s modernization projects in local regions' ~ By Jing Yu July 28, 2016

'China will never allow any part of its territory to break off, President Xi Jinping said on Friday, within a week of reining in Hong Kong independence moves and ignoring Taiwan’s urging to heed democratic aspirations in the Asian financial hub.'

'Beijing has halted official communication with self-ruled Taiwan because the government of President Tsai Ing-wen, the leader of the independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), refuses to acknowledge this “one China” principle.' ~ NOVEMBER 11, 2016 / 3:13 AM | Sue-Lin Wong

'China under the Communist Party has historically gone through cycles of limited openness followed by repression, and the country now, under President Xi Jinping, is arguably in one of its most politically restrictive periods since the Mao Zedong era, and certainly since the crackdown that followed the Tiananmen massacre.'

'Alongside an ongoing propaganda attack in the official media against perceived “hostile foreign forces,” the security services have been given sweeping new powers to regulate and monitor the 7,000 foreign nongovernmental organizations working in China.... Universities have been told to stop using imported textbooks that might spread Western ideology, and teachers were warned not to “defame” the Communist Party or “smear socialism” in their classrooms.'

'For China, the breaking point was the 2014 “Occupy Central” protest movement, also known here as “the Umbrella Revolution,” which lasted 79 days and brought thousands of demonstrators, mostly students and young people, into the streets demanding political reforms.' ~ By Keith B. Richburg | June 23, 2017

'Chinese nationalism stems from the almost permanently dominant position occupied by the Chinese Empire within the world with which it maintained relations prior to 1840. After its fall from the pedestal, the impact of the West was all the more strongly felt, the humiliation provoked all the more profound'

'Sun Yat-sen established, at the beginning of the republican period, the “three principles of the people”: nationalism (minzuzhuyi), democracy (minquan) and the well-being of the people (minsheng). He also proposed the establishment of democratically elected political institutions—the five Yuan or Councils—which combined the separation of the three powers of the Enlightenment (the legislative, the executive and the judiciary) with the Chinese administrative tradition'

'This relationship has led some reformers who favour the establishment of a democratic regime in China to also claim to be nationalists.....One can perceive behind this strategy a desire to avoid allowing nationalism to become the monopoly of conservative forces close to the Communist Party.' ~ Jean-Pierre Cabestan - Translated from the French original by Michael Black

'On May 21, when Yang Shuping, a Chinese girl from Yunnan (雲南), stepped up to the podium at the University of Maryland and gave her commencement speech, praising the “sweet and fresh, and oddly luxurious” air and free speech in the United States, little could she have expected the massive backlash she was to face at home. A video of her eight minute speech has gone viral in China, prompting a massive outpouring of negative comments from China’s internet users and other Chinese students studying in the US who accuse her of humiliating China.'

'Even more worryingly, as the Chinese leadership has increasingly relied on stoking nationalism to bolster autocratic controls and maintain stability at home, the country’s youth have become increasingly intolerant and belligerent. This has much to do with the country’s massive propaganda machine and the education system which omits or distorts facts of history to fit the narrative of the Communist Party.' ~ BY WANG XIANGWEI | 27 MAY 2017 / UPDATED ON 29 JUN 2017

'China’s defeat opened China’s doors, which ultimately led to the disintegration of the Chinese empire and the loss of national sovereignty to Western imperialists. Chinese people had suffered humiliation from imperialism for hundreds of years ever since. From the beginning of the twentieth century through today, most Chinese political leaders have not only shared a deep bitterness over this humiliation, but also shared a dream of a strong China.'

'Liberal nationalism, also introduced in the early twentieth century, eventually surpassed ethnic nationalism in its popularity. It defines the nation as a group of citizens who have a duty both to support the rights of the state and to pursue individual freedom.... After the Cold War, liberal nationalists have explicitly advocated the adoption of liberal democratic ideals to promote China’s renewal.'

'Chinese leaders, in their pragmatic pursuit of economic growth and development, have dismissed the standards that the international community treasures such as moral issues, human rights and transparency. This dismissal may lead to China’s isolation within the international community.' ~ By Jing Li | February 14, 2007

This essay looks at nationalism in China through its developing stages:

'Chinese civil war was a struggle between two ideas of nationalism because CPC promoted left-oriented state nationalism, and Kuomintang argued for Han-centric ethnic nationalism. So after civil war Chinese nationalism was more inclusive state nationalism rather than exclusive ethnic nationalism.'

'Chinese literati considered the existing so-called socialism in China to be influenced too heavily by the Chinese feudalistic tradition so that a large dose of Westernization was still necessary.'

'Fen Qings refers to youths born after the 1980s who possess both a cynical and critical view of the world and express them freely on the internet. The internet was the main tool of expression to this generation to express their nationalist sentiments.....They form a generation for whom, since prosperity and personal freedom are achievable, democracy is not required” ' ~ Shameer Modongal | Zhouxiang Lu (Reviewing Editor) | Received 26 Apr 2016, Accepted 06 Sep 2016, Published online: 26 Sep 2016

'Chinese history is a story of a continual struggle for political unification. But unifying a territory as vast and diverse as China meant that dynasties had to base their authority on something broader than ethnicity. The lifespan of dynasties was therefore measured by their adherence to the tenets of Chinese civilization, regardless of whether they were ethnically Han, Mongol or Manchu.'

'In recent years, despite Beijing's efforts to maintain the monopoly over Chinese nationalism, popular nationalist displays and protests have focused increasingly on internal political and social problems — with the implication that China's true constraint may not be the West at large, but the Party itself.' ~ Presenter: John Minnich

'The South China Sea is a critical commercial gateway for a significant portion of the world’s merchant shipping, and hence is an important economic and strategic sub-region of the Indo-Pacific. It is also the site of several complex territorial disputes that have been the cause of conflict and tension within the region and throughout the Indo-Pacific.'

'The South China Sea also contains rich, though unregulated and over-exploited fishing grounds and is reported to hold significant reserves of undiscovered oil and gas, which is an aggravating factor in maritime and territorial disputes. The major island and reef formations in the South China Sea are the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, Pratas, the Natuna Islands and Scarborough Shoal.'

'The Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Vietnam and China all lay claims on parts of the South China Sea that often overlap with each other. The situation is so sensitive that some don’t even call it the ‘South China Sea’ as that might imply it all belongs to China.'

'Nations like Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan and the Philippines, which have territorial disputes with the northern superpower, are therefore forced to take a close look at just how far they can push their claims without hurting their economies.' ~ DEC 19, 2017 @ 03:40 AM | Peter Pham

'China has backed its expansive claims with island-building and naval patrols. The US says it does not take sides in territorial disputes, but has sent military ships and planes near disputed islands, calling them "freedom of navigation" operations to ensure access to key shipping and air routes.'

'Although largely uninhabited, the Paracels and the Spratlys may have reserves of natural resources around them. There has been little detailed exploration of the area, so estimates are largely extrapolated from the mineral wealth of neighbouring areas.' ~ 12 July 2016

'33 percent of the world’s maritime traffic belongs to the South China Sea, so this region is vital for international trade.'

'But China aggressively claims 90% of the region, defying international laws.'

'But when China started reclamation work, transforming artificial islands into naval bases, tensions in the region escalated.'

'Neighboring countries are concerned over China’s ‘militarization’, believing that Beijing is preparing to control both resources and trade routes in the South China Sea.' ~ Dec. 26, 2017 9:35 AM ET

Here's a more nationalist Chinese take on the South Asia Sea situation:

'Coming from a country which has stated openly, in its National Security Strategy, that it will not countenance the rise of any other power to challenge its global dominance and which has some 900 military bases and facilities around the world to back that up, that is, well, a bit rich. Which is the country that regards the Gulf of Mexico as its backyard and wants all others to back off?'

'The answer is that China does not want to feel vulnerable ever again. It believes in the adage that those who failed to learn the lessons of history are doomed to re-live them. And among the bitter lessons for China is this – sovereignty must be underpinned by strength.' ~ BY LESLIE FONG | 29 MAR 2018

Commonwealth Party
New Nations of China
last revised April 2018